George-Julius Papadopoulos: Music as a Performing Art: Reflections on the Metaphysical
and Ontological Status of the Musical Work
The majority of scholars writing on the subjects of the analysis
and the critical theory of music aim at identifying the intentions
of the composer and influencing the perception of the listener.
However, such normative approaches sidestep entirely the nature
of music as a performing art, and also neglect to take into account
the nature of the musical work as the sum of the musical text and
its realizations (its “performances”). This article argues that
any analytical attempt should take into account the instantiations
of a musical work – i.e., the performances-interpretations it can
To prove this claim, representative writings by three philosophers
– Jerrold Levinson, Peter Kivy and Lydia Goehr – who have written
extensively on musical aesthetics and the ontology of the musical
work are examined. The article discusses several issues and also
provides answers to some pertinent questions, such as: What is “creation”
in music? Is the composer a “creator”, and in what sense? What is
the “musical work” and when is it considered complete? In conclusion,
the need for a symbiotic relationship between analysis and performance
is acknowledged, based on the assertion that the musical work is
multi-semantic and therefore a “text” that needs to remain continuously
open to multiple interpretations.
Katy Romanou: Stochastic “Jeux”
This article shows similarities between Claude Debussy’s and Iannis
Xenakis’ philosophy of music and work (in particular, the former’s
Jeux and the latter’s Metastasis and the succeeding stochastic works)
that seems to proceed in parallel (with no contact) to what is perceived
as the evolution of 20th century Western music.
Those two composers observed dominant trends as outsiders and negated
some among its elements considered as constant or natural by “traditional”
innovators (i.e., serialists): linearity of musical texture, form
Aiming at pure imitation of nature, Debussy and Xenakis conceived
sound planes and masses, where time is felt without memory’s interpretation,
rhythm has no periodicity, form is not directional and creative
thought is not to be followed by the listener.
Their concepts were in accordance to scientific advancements of
the 20th century, but little appealing to analysts and writers on
music. The fact, together with Cold War cultural politics, resulted
to the construction of the canon of 20th century composers’ classification,
in the 1970s, according to which both Debussy and Xenakis were in
the lowest rank.
Tassos Kolydas: The change of the guitar’s repertoire in the early twentieth
The article looks into the process of the guitar’s recognition as
a “serious” instrument, during which process the choice
of repertoire constituted a fundamental issue. Programs by guitarists
abroad are examined closely during the period covering the late
19th and early 20th centuries. Some of the most popular compositions,
included in the repertoires of guitarists in Western Europe, Latin
America and Greece are recorded. The tendency to adopt the pieces
of music written for other instruments and rearrange them for the
guitar – which was in effect up until 1930 – is commented upon as
well as the new approach Andrés Segovia initiated to order compositions
to be written by non-guitarist composers. In other words, the conditions
under which the horizons of the instrument were broadened are clarified;
conditions that lead to a rapid increase of music written solely
for the guitar.
Tsougras: The harmonization of Greek folk songs by M. Ravel and Y.
Constantinidis – A comparative study of the works and their relation
to the national music schools
The present paper comprises a comparative study of the piano-vocal
harmonization of Greek traditional melodies by two composers of
different nationalities: French Maurice Ravel and Greek Yannis Constantinidis.
The study focuses on the techniques pertaining to the manipulation
of the modal monophonic material; it is conducted by comparative
analysis of selected excerpts from Ravel’s Cinq mélodies populaires
grecques for soprano voice and piano, and Constantinidis’ Twenty
Greek folk songs for voice and piano. The study reveals the existence
of common ground, which is discernible in the concept and the purpose
of the composing procedure, as well as in the technical features
(use of modes, selection of harmonic elements, and elaboration on
the development of piano accompaniments). Furthermore, the differences
between the two composers are examined in terms of their background,
their individual motivation for the composition of the above works
and the association of the said works with the artistic mainstreams
of the European national music schools.
Ioannis Fulias: Sonata forms and their theoretical evolution:
The second part of this extensive survey of the theoretical evolution
of sonata forms from 18th to 20th centuries deals with Heinrich
Christoph Koch’s theory of sonata form. Koch offers a relatively
detailed description of the construction of the ternary sonata form,
which can be applied in every movement of a symphony or another
multi-movement instrumental work. There are three “main periods”
that are identified with the posterior theoretical terms of exposition,
development and recapitulation: each of them has to follow definite
tonal specifications, presenting and developing at the same time
and in a different way a given “Anlage”, i.e. a sequence of main
and subordinate themes – except for the case of an especially developmental
middle part, where only selected thematic elements need to be developed.
Koch also examines the binary sonata type, which formerly constituted
the starting-point for the sonata theory, but only as a means of
shortening the basic (ternary) form, in case of its application
in a rather brief slow movement.
Stoupakis: The prima and seconda prattica through
the works by Claudio Monteverdi
This article aims to approach the music of Claudio Monteverdi through
the terms prima and seconda prattica, which resulted from his controversy
with the theoretician Giovanni Maria Artusi.
The first part of the article describes step by step the story behind
this historic controversy. The second part is a thorough approach
of the composing practice of Monteverdi, through madrigals from
his 4th book. The third part treats the Missa of 1610, where by
means of the appropriate examples, Monteverdi’s ability to compose
using (at will) the prima prattica is described.